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Tolko, Ainsworth and LaCrete Sawmills – Growing for the Future
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Glossary of Terms

To provide clarification regarding some of the terms or phrases used throughout documents and/or maps associated with this website, Tolko Industries Ltd., LaCrete Sawmills and Norbord Inc. have developed this Glossary of Terms.

If there are terms or phrases included in any of the attached documents that require clarification, please contact the Companies via email and additional terms will be added to this list.

Glossary of Terms

Aboriginal – “Aboriginal“ in the context of this plan includes all Indian, Inuit, and Metis peoples of Canada (Constitution Act, 1982, Subsection 35(2)).

Adaptive Management – a learning approach to management that recognizes substantial uncertainties in managing forests and incorporates into decisions experience gained from the results of previous actions.

Agreement-in-Principle Alberta's notice (not approval) to the organization that what has been prepared is acceptable at that point. The component is subject to review at a later date and may require revision if supporting documentation is not provided.

Alberta Vegetation Inventory (AVI) – a system for describing the quantity and quality of vegetation present. It involves the stratification and mapping of the vegetation to create digital data according to the AVI Standards Manual and associated volume tables.

Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) – The volume of wood which may be harvested, under management, on an annual basis.

Annual Operating Plan (AOP) – A plan prepared and submitted by the forest operator each year, which provides the authorization to harvest as required by the Timber Management Regulations.

Annual Performance Report - An annual performance report is used to record results from the previous year, in addition to tracking cumulative performance. These reports are to be reviewed within the public involvement plan to ensure public accountability in forest management.

Auditor – a person qualified to undertake audits

Biodiversity (biological diversity) – “the variability among living organisms from all sources, including inter alia, terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species between species and of ecosystems”
(Environment Canada, Canadian Strategy).

Certificate of Registration (registration certificate) – the official document issues by a registrar to an organization upon successful completion of the registration process, including the registration audit.

Certificate/Registration – the result of a successful registration audit to a standard, whereby the registrar issues a certificate of registration and adds the organization’s registration to a publicly available list maintained by the registrar.Certifier (registrar) – an independent third party that is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada as being competent to register organizations with respect to nationally and internationally recognized standards.

Compliance – the conduct or results of activities in accordance with legal requirements.

Compartment – The Forest Management Agreement (FMA) area of the DFA is divided into 12 Operating Areas for administrative purposes. These Operating areas are divided further into a number of Compartments, which are used in the development of Annual Operating Plans. These compartments, like most of the Operating Areas, are divided by natural or anthropogenic boundaries including watercourses, highways, and/or pipelines.

Component – an individual section of the SFM system, e.g., policy, planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, or management review.

Conformance – meeting non-legal requirements such as policies, work instructions, or standards.

Continual Improvement – the ongoing process of enhancing SFM performance, resulting from experience and the incorporation of new knowledge in line with the organization’s SFM policy and from the application of the SFM requirements.

Contractor Manual - The Contractor Manual is a document provided to all Woodlands Staff and Contractors which includes the Woodlands Emergency Preparedness Plan (WEPP), EMS documentation (including forms), and also outlines the responsibilities and training requirements for staff and contractors.

Contractor Orientation Record (COR) – The COR is a record what is completed as required in the Companies’ EMS and indicates the following:

  • that the contractor(s) have been made aware of the Companies EMS and the related operational controls that apply to their work;
  • that the Contractor is made aware and understands the expectations of the Companies with respect to their responsibility to follow the Company procedures and will ensure that their employees’ also have training in the awareness of the Companies’ EMS and EMS procedures and understands the main commitments in the respective environmental policy;
  • that their suppliers understand & conform to the EMS and any other certification commitments.
  • understands and agrees to conform to these requirements.

Corrective action – action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation.
Note: There can be more than on cause for a non-conformance. Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence, whereas preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence.

Covertype(s) – The stratification or grouping of areas into the categories of C (predominantly coniferous), CD (predominantly coniferous mixedwood), DC (predominantly deciduous mixedwood), and D (predominantly deciduous). Predominance is based on crown closure as per the overstory inventory label (Phase 3 inventory) or on an evaluation of all overstory labels (AVI inventory).

Cut-Control Period – A five-year harvest period also known as a quadrant.

Deciduous Timber Allocation (DTA) – Deciduous quota allocation defined on an area or volume basis for up to a 20-Year term under the Forests Act (1).

Detailed Forest Management Plan (DFMP) - A long-term plan used to outline higher-level management objectives, sustainability and timber production assumptions for a Forest Management Agreement (FMA).

DFA-related worker – any individual employed by the organization to work for wages or a salary who does not have a significant or substantial share of the ownership in the employer’s organization and does not function as a manager of the organization.

Ecosystem – a dynamic complex of plants, animals, and micro-organisms and their non-living environment, interacting as a functioning unit.
Note: “The term ‘ecosystem’ can describe small-scale units, such as a drop of water as well as large-scale units, such as the biosphere” (Environment Canada, Canadian Biodiversity Strategy).

Environment – the surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and the interrelations of these elements.

Equivalent Clearcut Area (ECA) – The ECA describes the “effective” area that a recovering historic disturbance currently represents in terms of its ecological effects.

Establishment Survey – an establishment survey is completed 4 to 8 years after harvesting in C, CD, and DC cutblocks and 3 to 5 years after harvesting of D cutblocks.

Fiber Sourcing Standard - The SFI ® 2015-2019 Fiber Sourcing Standard promotes responsible forestry practices through 14 Principles, 13 Objectives, 21 Performance Measures and 55 Indicators. These fiber sourcing requirements include measures to broaden the practice of biodiversity, use forestry best management practices to protect water quality, provide outreach to landowners and use the services of forest management and harvesting professionals. The Fiber Sourcing Standard applies to organizations in the United States and Canada that procure wood domestically or globally.

Fire Control Agreement - The Minister may, with a view to ensuring the prevention and control of forest and prairie fires, enter into an agreement, known as a fire control agreement,

(a) with any person carrying on an industrial or commercial operation over, under, on or adjacent to public land with respect to that operation;

(b) with the Government of Canada with respect to land in or adjacent to Alberta that belongs to that Government or that is under its administration and control;

(c) with the government of any province or territory or;

(d) with the council of a municipal district or urban municipality with respect to land within its boundaries or under its control.

Forest – an ecosystem dominated by trees and other woody vegetation growing more or less closely together its related flora and fauna, and the values attributed to it.

Forest Harvest Plan (FHP) - The primary components of a Forest Harvest Plan (FHP) include a map and report that clearly illustrates and documents the harvest area boundaries, roads and watercourse crossings within an individual compartment. Forest Harvest Plans (FHP's) are developed for each compartment scheduled for harvest.

Forest Management Agreement (FMA) – A contract between the province of Alberta and the FMA holder whereby the province provides an area-based Crown timber supply. In return, the FMA holder commits to the following:

  • Managing the timber resource on a perpetual sustained yield basis, taking into consideration a broad range of forest values in determining forest management practices.
  • Meeting defined economic objectives, including capital investment and job creation, and seeking out new business opportunities that provide measurable economic benefits for both the province and FMA holder.

The FMA gives the FMA holder the right to access Crown fibre. In return, the FMA holder commits to forest management responsibilities, which may change from time to time.

Forest Management Standard - The SFI 2015-2019 Forest Management Standard promotes sustainable forestry practices based on 13 Principles, 15 Objectives, 37 Performance Measures and 101 Indicators. These requirements include measures to protect water quality, biodiversity, wildlife habitat, species at risk and forests with exceptional conservation value. The SFI 2015-2019 Forest Management Standard applies to any organization in the United States or Canada that owns or manages forestlands.

Forest Management Unit (FMU) – An administrative unit of forest land designated by the Minister, as authorized under Section 14(1) of the Forests Act.

General Development Plans (GDP) – Five-year plans. They provide a comprehensive description of the proposed harvest strategy and the associated renewal activities for all areas impacted by the plan.

Grazing License – A Grazing License is a grazing disposition with tenure of 10 years.

Ground Rules/Upper Hay Regional Ground Rules (UHRGR) – Ground rules provide direction to industry and government for planning, implementing and monitoring forestry operations on Crown lands in Alberta. They are negotiated indicators of best forestry practices for a given FMU or FMA. They highlight important management principles, define operating and planning objectives, and present standards and guidelines for timber harvest, road development, reclamation, reforestation and integration of timber harvesting with other forest uses. They are authorized by the Forests Act and The Timber Management Regulation.

As part of the approval of the Detailed Forest Management Plan for the FMA, the Companies and Alberta developed regional-specific ground rules (i.e. Upper Hay Regional Ground Rules).

Harvest Sequence – The order of harvest operations in time and space.

Indicator – a variable that measures or describes the state or condition of an objective

Local – Local in the context that it is being used in this document includes residents of High Level, Rainbow Lake, Assumption, Meander River, Zama City, Fort Vermilion, John D’Or Prairie, Fox Lake, LaCrete, North/South Tall Cree, Paddle Prairie, Rocky Lane, and/or residents of M.D. 23.

Mineral Surface Lease (MSL) - A government surface activity label for an oil and gas wellsite. A wellsite is usually the portion of the surface of land required for the conduct of drilling or completion operations of a well during the period next following the initial entry upon the land until the well is abandoned or completed. Generally square or rectangular in shape.
(Saskatchewan Surface Right Acquisition and Compensation Act, 1968 (Stat. Sask. 1968, c.73)

Natural Range of Variability – The historic range in age class and/or seral stages over time as a result of natural disturbances.

NIVMA – Northern Interior Vegetation Management Association.

Objective – a fundamental goal of sustainable forest management.

Older Age Classes – Age classes which are considered >120 years of age.

Operational Controls – Operational controls are developed and implemented to ensure that potential for significant negative environmental impacts are minimized.

Operations Inspection Form – A form completed by field supervisors to monitor and report the status of activities on a block-by-block basis.

Performance Measure - In the SFI program, a means of judging whether an objective has been fulfilled.

Performance Survey – a performance survey is completed 8 to 14 years after harvesting in C, CD, and DC cutblocks and 10 to 14 years after harvesting in conditionally stocked D cutblocks.

PPMS – Paddle Prairie Metis Settlement.

Preferred Forest Management Strategy (PFMS) – A set of compatible and integrated resource management strategies that has been selected to guide plan implementation.

Productive Land – Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. Includes land not now forested. Forest land capable of producing a merchantable stand within a reasonable length of time.

Program – An organized system, process or set of activities to achieve an objective or performance measure.

Program Participant - An organization certified by an accredited certification body to be in conformance with the SFI 2015-2019 Forest Management Standard, and/or SFI 2015-2019 Fiber Sourcing Standard and/or SFI 2015-2019 Chain-of-Custody Standard.

Protected area – an area protected by legislation, regulation or land-use policy to control the level of human occupancy or activities.
Note: “Categories or protected areas include protected landscapes, national parks, multiple use management areas, and nature wildlife reserves" (The State of Canada’s Forests 2001, 2002).

Residual Material – Non-merchantable trees and shrubs (>2m), including understory, standing dead, broken, or decaying trees, trees identified as having dens or nests, or areas retained due to the presence of unique flora.

Riparian Zone – Those terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate conditions are products of the combined presence and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water, associated high water tables, and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics.

Salvageable – Coniferous and/or deciduous area capable of yielding volume of sufficient quality and quantity to produce dimensional lumber and/or OSB, while incorporating geographical location, other industrial operations, as well as utilization standards as agreed to by Alberta Agriculture and Forestry.

SFI Certification - A systematic and documented verification process to obtain and evaluate evidence objectively to determine whether a Program Participant’s SFI program conforms to the requirements of SFI 2015-2019 Standards and Rules.

SFM Policy – a statement by the organization of intentions and principles in relation to SFM, which provides a framework for objectives, targets, practices and actions.

SFM System – the structure, responsibilities, practices, processes and time frames set by a registrar for implementing, maintaining, and improving SFM.

Spatial Harvest Sequence (SHS) - The spatial distribution of harvest areas as a result of the implementation of the Preferred Forest Management Strategy (PFMS).

Stewardship Report – A report that accounts for all activities, undertaken as steward of a given article, resource, area or process, related to strategies to achieve stated stewardship goals. Measures of performance are included and linked to plans that express the desired goals.

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) – management “to maintain and enhance the longterm health of forest ecosystems, while providing ecological, economic, social and cultural opportunities for the benefit of present and future generations” ( The State of Canada’s Forests 2001/2002).

Sustainable Forestry Initiative Inc. ® (SFI) - SFI Inc. is a 501c(3) non-profit charitable organization, and is solely responsible for maintaining, overseeing and improving the Sustainable Forestry Initiative program. SFI Inc. directs all elements of the Sustainable Forestry Initiative program including the SFI Standard(s), including forest management, fiber sourcing, and chain-of-custody certifications, and labeling and marketing. SFI Inc. is overseen by a three-chamber Board of Directors representing social, environmental and economic sectors.

Tailgate Checklist – Company staff utilize the Tailgate Checklist to introduce the contractor to the management objectives for a particular project.

Tenure – the terms under which a forest manager or owner possesses the rights and assumes the responsibilities, to use, harvest, or manage one or more forest resources in a specified forest area for a specified period of time.

Note: private ownership of forestland is the strongest form of tenure, as the rights and obligations rest solely with the forest owner. Forest tenures of public land in Canada fall into two main categories: area-based and volume-based. Area-based tenures not only confer timberharvest rights out also usually oblige the tenure holder to assume forest management responsibilities. Volume-based tenures normally give the holder the right to harvest specific volumes of timber in areas specified by the landowner or manager but can also oblige holders to assume forest management responsibilities.

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